Here at HomeschoolCPA, I get a lot of questions about the difference between employees and independent contractors (IC). Many homeschool organizations hire workers as ICs and wonder if they really should be treated as employees.
This is the first of a 3-part series on the definition of IC. I hope it’s helpful.
Lets start with Behavioral Control.
My source is straight from the IRS website: https://www.irs.gov/Businesses/Small-Businesses-&-Self-Employed/Behavioral-Control
Behavioral control refers to facts that show whether there is a right to direct or control how the worker does the work. A worker is an employee when the business has the right to direct and control the worker. The business does not have to actually direct or control the way the work is done – as long as the employer has the right to direct and control the work.
The behavioral control factors fall into the categories of:
Type of instructions given
Degree of instruction
Types of Instructions Given
An employee is generally subject to the business’s instructions about when, where, and how to work. All of the following are examples of types of instructions about how to do work.
When and where to do the work.
What tools or equipment to use.
What workers to hire or to assist with the work.
Where to purchase supplies and services.
What work must be performed by a specified individual.
What order or sequence to follow when performing the work.
Degree of Instruction
Degree of Instruction means that the more detailed the instructions, the more control the business exercises over the worker. More detailed instructions indicate that the worker is an employee. Less detailed instructions reflects less control, indicating that the worker is more likely an independent contractor.
Note: The amount of instruction needed varies among different jobs. Even if no instructions are given, sufficient behavioral control may exist if the employer has the right to control how the work results are achieved. A business may lack the knowledge to instruct some highly specialized professionals; in other cases, the task may require little or no instruction. The key consideration is whether the business has retained the right to control the details of a worker’s performance or instead has given up that right.
If an evaluation system measures the details of how the work is performed, then these factors would point to an employee.
If the evaluation system measures just the end result, then this can point to either an independent contractor or an employee.
If the business provides the worker with training on how to do the job, this indicates that the business wants the job done in a particular way. This is strong evidence that the worker is an employee. Periodic or on-going training about procedures and methods is even stronger evidence of an employer-employee relationship. However, independent contractors ordinarily use their own methods.
Read the other factors that determine IC status:
And always remember this advice from the IRS (emphasis added)
Businesses must weigh all these factors when determining whether a worker is an employee or independent contractor. Some factors may indicate that the worker is an employee, while other factors indicate that the worker is an independent contractor. There is no “magic” or set number of factors that “makes” the worker an employee or an independent contractor, and no one factor stands alone in making this determination. Also, factors which are relevant in one situation may not be relevant in another.IRS.gov
The keys are to look at the entire relationship, consider the degree or extent of the right to direct and control, and finally, to document each of the factors used in coming up with the determination.
Still confused? Maybe my book, Paying Workers in a Homeschool Organization can help. It’s written just for homeschool leaders.
Carol Topp, CPA